Moon in 2016

December 30, 2015 - Supermoon

Our moon: The vast picture

Moon phases in 2016

Synodic months in 2016

Supermoons in 2016

Lunar and solar eclipses in 2016

Mosaic display moon phases over one synodic month

NASA animations of moon phases and librations in 2016

Dial-A-Moon

Reference links

As a Moon orbits Earth, a changing geometry with honour to a Sun produces a evil phases. This combination design is a mosaic done from 25 particular photos of a Moon and illustrates a phases over one synodic month. For finish sum about this image, see Moon Phases Mosaic. The particular images enclosed in this combination can be found in a Moon Phases Gallery. For some-more composites, see Moon Phases Mosaics. Photo copyright 2012 by Fred Espenak.

As a moon orbits Earth, a changing geometry with honour to a intent produces a evil phases. This combination design is a mosaic done from 25 particular photos of a moon and illustrates a phases over one synodic month. For finish sum about this image, see Moon Phases Mosaic. The particular images enclosed in this combination can be found in Fred Espenak’s Moon Phases Gallery. For some-more composites, see Moon Phases Mosaics. Photo copyright Fred Espenak.

Our moon: The vast picture. We tend to take a moon for postulated though it shares a singular story with Earth. Shortly after a arrangement 4.5 billion years ago, proto-Earth collided with a Mars-sized intent called Theia. Much of proto-Earth and Theia joined to turn a Earth, though a impact also ejected a vast volume of element into space. Some of it coalesced to turn a moon.

The moon’s circuit stabilizes a axial lean of Earth, preventing it from undergoing pell-mell variations that would lead to inauspicious changes in climate. And a daily arise and tumble of moon-induced tides has left an memorable impress on Earth. Some scientists even disagree whether life on Earth would be possible but a change of a moon.

With this vast design in mind, we benefit a new appreciation for a moon as we watch a phases, cycles, and motions during 2016.

Moon phases in 2016:

moon-phases-2016-fred-espenak

As a moon orbits Earth, a changing geometry with honour to a intent produces a moon’s evil phases (new moon, initial quarter, full moon and final quarter). One circuit of a moon relations to a intent (the synodic month) has a meant generation of 29.53 days.

The list above lists a date and time of a moon’s phases via 2016. The time of any proviso is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). I’ve generated a list of a moon’s phases covering 100 years on AstroPixels.com during Moon’s Phases – 21st Century (GMT).

Similar 100-year tables for other time zones embody Eastern Standard Time (EST), Central Standard Time (CST), Mountain Standard Time (MST), and Pacific Standard Time (PST).

Click here to modify GMT to other time zones.

Synodic months in 2016:

lengths-of-synodic-months

What surprises many people is that a length of a synodic month can change by over 6 hours from a meant value of 29.5306 days (29 days 12 hours 44 minutes). The list next gives a date of new moon, a length of a synodic month, and a disproportion from a synodic month’s meant value for each synodic month in 2016. For instance, a 5th synodic month of 2016 (beginning May 6) is 5 hours 14 mins shorter than a mean, while a 10 month (beginning Oct 30) is 5 hours 56 mins longer than a mean.

The year 2008 had even larger extremes in a synodic month – from 5 hours 48 mins shorter, to 6 hours 49 mins longer than a meant value. So what causes these variations? The reason involves a moon’s elliptical circuit and a march with honour to a intent during any given month. If new moon occurs when a moon is nearest to Earth (perigee), afterwards a synodic month is shorter than normal. On a other hand, if new moon occurs when a moon is farthest from Earth (apogee), afterwards a synodic month is longer than normal.

Furthermore, a march of a moon’s ellipse-shaped circuit solemnly rotates in space with a generation of about 18 years. A some-more minute contention on this theme can be found during Moon’s Orbit and a Synodic Month (EclipseWise.com). You can also find a generation of each synodic month this century during Length of a Synodic Month: 2001 to 2100 (AstroPixels.com).

Because a moon orbits Earth in about 29.5 days with honour to a sun, a daily suit opposite a credentials stars and constellations is utterly rapid. It averages 12.2° per day. A list giving a moon’s daily astronomical coordinates via a year can be found during Moon Ephemeris for 2016 (AstroPixels.com). This list lists a lot of other sum about a moon including a daily distance, apparent size, libration, proviso age (days given new moon) and a proviso enlightenment fraction.

Supermoons in 2016:

supermoons-2016

When a full moon occurs within 90% of a moon’s closest proceed to Earth in a given orbit, it is called a perigee-syzygy or more ordinarily a supermoon. The full moon afterwards appears generally vast and splendid given it subtends a largest apparent hole as seen from Earth.

The relations stretch listed in a supermoon list expresses a moon’s stretch as a fragment between round (0.0) and perigee (1.0). For some-more information on supermoons and a finish list of them for this century, see Full Moon during Perigee (Super Moon): 2001 to 2100 (AstroPixels.com).

Besides a apparent phases, a moon also undergoes some additional extremes in a circuit including: Perigee and Apogee, Ascending/Descending Nodes, and Lunar Standstills. Each of these AstroPixels links covers lunar phenomena for a whole 21st Century.

Lunar and solar eclipses in 2016:

The final obscure of a Moon manifest from a USA occurred on a night of Sept. 27/28, 2015. It was a sum obscure as a Moon upheld totally inside Earths dim umbral shadow. 2015 by Fred Espenak.

The final obscure of a moon manifest from a USA occurred on a night of Sept. 27/28, 2015. It was a sum obscure as a moon upheld totally inside Earth’s dim umbral shadow. ©2015 by Fred Espenak.

What contention of a moon would be finish but mentioning eclipses in 2016? There are dual eclipses of a moon and both of them are penumbral. The initial occurs on Mar 23 and is manifest from a western hemisphere. The second happens 6 months after on Sep 16 and is manifest from a eastern hemisphere. Penumbral eclipses are really pointed events and mostly come but any notice (see: Visual Appearances of Penumbral Lunar Eclipses). But a 2016 eclipses are both low penumbral eclipses so a dim shading should be manifest around a time of mid-eclipse. By coincidence, a Sep 16 obscure also happens to start during a supermoon.

Some sources brand a third penumbral obscure on Aug 18. But this prophecy depends on opposite assumptions about a stretch of Earth’s penumbral shadow. Even if we accept these assumptions, a obscure hardly occurs during all given usually a meagre 1.7% of a moon’s hole enters a penumbral shadow. For those who wish to puncture deeper into this subject, see: Enlargement of Earth’s Shadows. If such a tiny obscure were to occur, it would be totally undetectable with even a largest telescopes on Earth.

There are also dual solar eclipses in 2016. The initial is a sum obscure on Mar 16 manifest from Indonesia and tools of a Pacific Ocean. The second is an annular solar obscure on Sep 01 manifest from southern Africa and Madagascar. For finish sum on all these events, see Eclipses During 2016 (EclipseWise.com).

Watching a moon’s phases polish and decline as good as a occasional lunar obscure can best be enjoyed with a exposed eye and binoculars. And we don’t even need a dim sky given a moon is simply manifest from a heart of brightly illuminated cities.

Mosaic display moon phases over one synodic month:

A mosaic done from 9 particular photos of a Moon captures a phases over one synodic month. For finish sum about this image, see Moon Phases Mosaic. The particular images enclosed in this combination can be found in a Moon Phases Gallery. For some-more composites, see Moon Phases Mosaics. Photo copyright 2012 by Fred Espenak.

A mosaic done from 9 particular photos of a moon captures a phases over one synodic month. For finish sum about this image, see Moon Phases Mosaic. The particular images enclosed in this combination can be found in a Moon Phases Gallery. For some-more composites, see Moon Phases Mosaics. Photo copyright 2012 by Fred Espenak.

One of a initial projects we tackled on completing Bifrost Observatory in 2010 was to sketch a moon’s phases each day for a finish month. Of course, a continue doesn’t always concur (even from balmy Arizona) so it indeed took several months to finish a project. You can see a formula during a Moon Phases Gallery. Clicking on any of a thumbnails cinema will give we an lengthened design with finish technical details. You can also revisit Moon Phases Mosaics to see composites display a moon’s phases over a finish synodic month.

NASA animations of moon phases and librations in 2016:

The NASA/Goddard Scientific Visualization Studio has used design information from a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) goal to emanate crafty animations of a moon’s ever changing phases and librations in 2016. The instance next illustrates a moon’s proviso and libration during hourly intervals via 2016, as noticed from a northern hemisphere. Each support represents one hour.

Besides presenting a moon’s proviso and apparent size, these videos uncover a moon’s circuit position, sub-Earth and subsolar points, stretch from a Earth during loyal scale, and labels of craters nearby a terminator. As a moon orbits Earth, it appears to stagger and tip on a axis. This suit is called libration and it allows us to see about 59% of a moon’s aspect (see Libration (EarthSky). The vital means of libration is due to a changing line of steer given of a moon’s elliptical orbit.

Dial-A-Moon. Ernie Wright of a NASA Scientific Visualization Studio has also used LRO information to emanate a web apparatus called Dial-A-Moon. Enter a month, day and hour and Dial-A-Moon will beget a cognisance of a moon display a scold proviso and libration for that present during 2016 (see Moon Phase and Libration, 2016).

The moon phases and lunar phenomena discussed here were all generated with mechanism programs I’ve created (THINK Pascal and FORTRAN 90 regulating on a Macintosh G4 and MacBook Pro) regulating Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Reference links:

Phases of a Moon: 2001 to 2100 (Greenwich Mean Time)
Phases of a Moon: 2001 to 2100 (Eastern Standard Time)
Phases of a Moon: 2001 to 2100 (Central Standard Time)
Phases of a Moon: 2001 to 2100 (Mountain Standard Time)
Phases of a Moon: 2001 to 2100 (Pacific Standard Time)
Six Millennium Catalog of Phases of a Moon: -1999 to 4000 (2000 BCE to 4000 CE)

Moon Ephemeris for 2016
Length of a Synodic Month: 2001 to 2100
Full Moon during Perigee (Super Moon): 2001 to 2100
Perigee and Apogee: 2001 to 2100
Ascending/Descending Nodes: 2001 to 2100
Lunar Standstills: 2001 to 2100

Moon Phases Photo Gallery
Moon Phases Mosaics

Eclipses During 2016 (EclipseWise.com) – minute information, maps and tables
Solar and Lunar Eclipses (EclipseWise.com) – a new web site containing predictions for thousands of solar and lunar eclipses
Eclipses and a Moon’s Orbit (EclipseWise.com) – how a Moon’s orbital cycles are associated to eclipses

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source ⦿ http://earthsky.org/space/moon-phases-synodic-months-supermoons-eclipses

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